White-eyelid mangabeys remain relatively poorly understood. The study of free-ranging groups is hampered by the diffuculty of habituation, due to their semi-terrestrial and wide-ranging behaviour in dense forest habitat. Here we give an overview of published research on white-eyelid mangabeys. The list is very preliminary and will be completed in the future. Feel free to contact us with suggestions of interesting publications on white-eyelid mangabeys.



In the past white-eyelid mangabeys were grouped with crested mangabeys in a single genus Cercocebus. Several lines of evidence (both molecular and morphological) have shown the diphyletic origin of mangabeys, with the semi-terrestrial white-eyelid mangabeys (Cercocebus) allied with Mandrillus, while the arboreal crested mangabeys (Lophocebus) are grouped with Papio, Theropithecus and Rungwecebus.

Key references:
Groves, C.P. (1978). Phylogenetic and population systematics of the mangabeys. Primates 19: 1-34.
– Barnicot, N.A. & Wade, P.T. (1970). Protein structure and the systematics of Old World monkeys. In: Old World Monkeys, Napier, J.P. & Napier, P.H. (eds.). Academic Press, New York & London: 227-262.
– Barnicot, N.A. & Hewett-Emmett, D. (1972). Red cell and serum proteins of Cercocebus, Presbytis, Colobus and certain other species. Folia Primatol. 17: 442-457.
– Cronin, J.E. & Sarich, V.M. (1976). Molecular evidence for dual origin of mangabeys among Old World monkeys. Nature 260: 700-702.
– Page, S.L. & Goodman, M. (2001). Catarrhine phylogeny: noncoding DNA evidence for a diphyletic origin of the mangabeys and for a human-chimpanzee clade. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 18: 14-25.
– Gilbert, C.C. (2007). Craniomandibular morphology supporting the diphyletic origin of mangabeys and a new genus of the Cercocebus/Mandrillus clade, Procercocebus. J. Hum. Evol. 53: 69- 102.
– Fleagle, J.G. & McGraw, W.S. (1999). Skeletal and dental morphology supports diphyletic origin of baboons and mandrills. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 96: 1157-1161.
– Fleagle, J.G. & McGraw, W.S. (2002). Skeletal and dental morphology of African papionins: unmasking a cryptic clade. J. Hum. Evol. 42: 267-292.


Feeding ecology:

The feeding ecology of white-eyelid mangabeys is characterised by durophagy, which means they feed mainly on very hard food items.

Key references:
– Ehardt, C. L., McGraw, W.S., Wieczkowski, J. & Shah, N.F. (2006). Cercocebus ecology: a synthesis of field research for the best known taxa. Int. J. Primatol. 27 [Suppl] 1: #90.
– Homewood, K.M. (1976). Ecology and behaviour of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus). PhD thesis. London: University College London.
– Kinnaird, M.F. (1990). Behavioral and demographic responses to habitat changes by the Tana River crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeriatus). PhD thesis. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.
– Shah N.F. (2003). Foraging strategies in two sympatric mangabey species (Cercocebus agilis and Lophocebus albigena). PhD thesis. Stony Brook University, New York.
– Wieczkowski, J. (2003). Aspects of the ecological flexibility of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus) in its fragmented habitat, Tana River, Kenya. PhD thesis. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.